Traveling to Europe? A Country-by-Country Reopening Guide

Traveling to Europe? A Country-by-Country Reopening Guide


On Friday, the European Union recommended lifting the ban on nonessential travel for visitors from the United States just in time for the summer season, which is crucial to the E.U.’s economy.

While the bloc aims to take a coordinated approach to travel this summer, the recommendation is nonbinding and member states will be allowed to set their own requirements for travelers from individual countries based on their own epidemiological criteria.

Visitors from outside the bloc who can show documentation of having received E.U.-approved vaccines — including those from Pfizer-BioNTech, Moderna and Johnson & Johnson — will be allowed to enter E.U. countries without having to take a test or quarantine upon arrival. The bloc will also allow people to travel from countries it considers epidemiologically safe, regardless of their vaccination status. (Any passengers transiting through Britain on their way to other European countries should check with the authorities in their final destination to determine whether they may be subject to rules governing arrivals from Britain, where there has been a spike in cases involving the highly contagious Delta variant.)

The European Union’s “safe list” also applies to Europe’s border-free Schengen Zone, which includes non-E.U. countries such as Norway, Switzerland, Iceland and Liechtenstein.

Some European countries are already allowing in American travelers with vaccine or testing requirements. Denmark, for example, has announced that Americans who are fully vaccinated with a European Medicines Agency-approved vaccine, may enter without being tested, as long as it has been at least 14 days since their last shot, according to the U.S. embassy in Denmark.

Here is a guide to some of the continent’s most popular tourist destinations, explaining what is required for entry and what to expect if you do visit. This list will be updated as countries change their policies and when others open their borders. Ceylan Yeginsu

Jump to: Croatia, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Iceland, Italy, Portugal, Spain, Switzerland, Turkey and the United Kingdom.

Like other countries in Europe, Croatia experienced a third wave that appears to have peaked in April. Since then, daily cases have steadily decreased. Croatia’s Institute of Public Health tracks cases on this website but doesn’t provide figures on deaths. According to World Health Organization data, from May 10 to May 16 Croatia had 239 Covid-related deaths (daily average: 34) and 5,896 new cases (daily average: 842). About 31 percent of adults in Croatia have had at least one vaccine dose while nearly 10 percent have been fully vaccinated, according to the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control.

Unlike some other European countries, Croatia makes no distinction between tourists and other travelers, applying the same conditions for leisure travel, essential family and business. Visitors from the European countries on the E.C.D.C.’s so-called green list (which varies constantly) can travel without restrictions. Those coming from European countries not on the green list must provide one of the following: a negative Covid test, proof of vaccination or a certificate of recovery. Finally, visitors from outside Europe must provide the same evidence (either a negative Covid test, a vaccination certificate or a certificate of recovery) and provide evidence of accommodations paid in advance or proof that they own property in Croatia, according to the government website. Travelers are advised to fill out the Enter Croatia form to speed up the process.

On June 1, Croatia and six other E.U. states began issuing vaccination certificates to citizens, and accepting them from visitors, to better streamline travel within the bloc. The free certificate, featuring a QR code, is available in digital or paper form, and indicates if a traveler is fully vaccinated against Covid-19, recovered from the disease or has received a negative virus test result. The rollout of the certificate program for the entire bloc (27 countries) is expected July 1. It is not yet available to travelers from the United States.

Currently, no direct flights operate between Croatia and the United States, but United Airlines and Delta Air Lines will launch seasonal direct flights from Newark Liberty International Airport and Kennedy International Airport in July, said Ina Rodin, an official with the Croatian National Tourist Office.

Croatia has universal health care and the quality of medical facilities are in line with European standards. Rapid antigen and PCR tests are widely available, with contact information listed on Croatia’s Institute of Public Health website. Those who develop symptoms of Covid-19 while in Croatia should contact a Covid-dedicated call center by dialing 113 or one of the designated medical facilities.

This country of 5.8 million was averaging 659 virus cases per day as of June 10, down from just over 1,000 per day in mid-May and well below last year’s peak of around 3,500. Testing is widespread and the positivity rate is holding steady at below 1 percent. Vaccinations are also picking up, with over 43 percent of the population having received at least one dose as of June 8.

Since June 5, fully vaccinated travelers from the United States, Canada and several other countries have been allowed to enter Denmark, including for tourism, with no requirements for testing or quarantine. Fourteen days must have passed since your last shot before entry. Any visitors who transit through Britain will need to comply with Denmark’s entry rules for Britain. More information (in English) is available from the Danish government, as well as on the website of the U.S. Embassy in Denmark. Travelers who cannot find the information they need online can call Denmark’s official arrivals hotline, +45 7020 6044.

Denmark’s hospitals are under little strain because of the pandemic. Across the country, 120 people were hospitalized with Covid-19 as of June 10, with 22 in intensive care. Testing is widespread and, at many testing centers, visitors can obtain a test free of charge. Check this list provided by the government to find the testing sites that serve foreigners.

Covid-related restrictions in Denmark have eased considerably over the past two months. Museums, amusement parks, movie theaters, stores, bars and restaurants are now open, although guests may be asked to provide either proof of vaccination or a recent negative test to gain entry. Restaurants and bars are now allowed to remain open until midnight, but clubs and other nightlife will remain shut until Sept. 1. Mask requirements are also being phased out: As of June 14, masks will be required only while standing up on public transportation. Check here for the latest English-language updates on Denmark’s Covid-related regulations.

Karen Nedergaard, general manager of the Absalon Hotel and the Andersen Hotel, both in Copenhagen, said that she was happy to read the recent news about Denmark’s opening to vaccinated tourists from the United States and elsewhere. Normally, both of her hotels would be full for most of the summer, she said, but their current occupancy is around 35 percent. “I think we are going to see a pickup over the summer,” she said.

Anyone who makes the trip will have plenty of attractions to choose from. An immersive museum dedicated to Hans Christian Andersen — author of “The Little Mermaid” and “The Princess and the Pea,” among many other fairy tales and other works — will open on June 30 in the writer’s hometown, Odense. The capital city’s Tivoli Gardens amusement park will host Michelin-star pop-up restaurants throughout the summer. And in August, Copenhagen and nearby Malmo, Sweden, will co-host WorldPride and EuroGames, an LGBTI inclusive sporting event. Paige McClanahan

Bars and restaurants can operate but customers must be seated outside. The only indoor dining allowed is in hotels. There is a 10 p.m. curfew for shops, restaurants and other businesses. While beaches, thermal spas, parks, zoos and most museums are open, nightclubs are closed.

The general mood seems relaxed, and people seem eager to return to quasi-normal life and welcome tourists. Croatia’s economy heavily relies on tourism, accounting for almost 20 percent of the country’s gross domestic product according to 2018 data from the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development.

“Most people have a normal social life,” said Kresimira Kruslin, 30, a lawyer in Zagreb. “The general feeling is very optimistic. Young people feel comfortable going out for drinks and things like that,” she said. “Some people are more cautious than others, but I don’t know anyone who is scared.” Anna Momigliano

France’s positivity rate and case numbers have dropped steadily over the past month, thanks to the country’s accelerating vaccination campaign and a national lockdown that was announced at the end of March. As of May 17, the seven-day average for daily new confirmed cases was just over 14,000, down from more than 45,000 one month earlier. The share of tests that are positive has similarly dropped from around 10 percent to 4.5 percent over the same period. And after a slow start, the pace of the vaccination campaign has recently picked up. As of May 17, nearly 31 percent of the French population had received at least one dose of vaccine, and 14 percent were fully vaccinated. Universal adult eligibility for vaccination will open up on May 31.

As of June 9, France is once again welcoming visitors from outside Europe. Passengers arriving from the United States and other countries on France’s “green list” are required to show either proof of vaccination or a negative PCR or antigen test performed within 72 hours of entering France. In the meantime, Americans wishing to travel to France can check the website of the U.S. embassy for more information.

Pressure on France’s health system has eased considerably, with the number of patients in the country’s intensive care units dropping from a high of more than 6,000 on April 26 to just over 4,000 on May 18. In a move that should appeal to tourists and public health officials alike, France will make PCR tests available to all visitors free of charge this summer, France’s European affairs minister, Clément Beaune, recently told an interviewer. Anyone who tests positive should isolate and call a local doctor’s office if needed; for medical emergencies, dial 15.

Nonessential stores are reopening, outdoor dining has started, and the national curfew has been pushed back from 7 p.m. to 9 p.m. Museums like the Louvre and the Musée d’Orsay are also opening their doors, as are theaters, movie theaters and cultural sites across the country, including the Château de Versailles and the Mont-Saint-Michel Abbey. Disneyland Paris will reopen on June 17. The next easing of nationwide restrictions will come on June 9, when France’s curfew will be rolled back to 11 p.m., and limited indoor dining will be permitted. The last of the major restrictions will be lifted on June 30, when the curfew will be abolished and larger gatherings will be allowed, opening the door for the summer festival season. But even after all of the lockdown measures have been eased, visitors to France should expect to encounter mask requirements and social distancing measures, including limited capacity at museums, restaurants, stores and other establishments.

It’s been a long spring in France, and for many here, the annual grandes vacances can’t come soon enough. Restaurants just opened for outdoor dining, and people flocked to the tables, despite chilly, rainy weather in much of the country. But the prospect of summer vacations may be as important to the national economy as it is to the French spirit. The tourism industry accounts for nearly 8 percent of France’s gross domestic product and supports some two million jobs. “We need, we want, in good health conditions, to remain the top tourist destination in Europe and the world,” Mr. Beaune, the French official, said. “This is an economic issue for us.” Paige McClanahan

After a scary third wave that peaked in mid-April, infections in Germany have been plummeting. On June 18, there were about 10 infections for every 100,000. In Berlin — a city of 3.6 million people — there were only a dozen new infections recorded as of June 17. Across the country, about 1,000 Covid patients are occupying I.C.U. beds. But there are clouds on the horizon: Though it accounts for fewer than 10 percent of new infections, authorities say it’s not a matter of if the Delta variant eventually dominates new infections but when.

As of June 18, over half of the population had received at least one vaccination shot, and nearly a third were fully vaccinated. Within the European Union, Germany has one of the highest rates of vaccination.

Germany opened its border to U.S. tourists on June 20. Passengers arriving by plane must present a negative PCR test or proof of vaccination before boarding. Once on German ground, no quarantine is required. If you are not flying in directly, check the website of the Robert Koch Institute, the German version of the C.D.C., for arrivals from “at risk countries.”

During the pandemic a lot of resources were put into expanding coronavirus wards, so care is efficient and professional in Germany’s mostly state-of-the-art hospitals. Finding a good doctor who speaks English should not be a problem. However, currently, private doctor’s offices are inundated with people looking to get vaccinated, so if you have any kind of emergency, it is best to go to the emergency department of the local hospital. The phone number for medical emergencies is 116-117.

Covid-related restrictions are set by Germany’s 16 individual states, so rules will be a bit different in Berlin (which is its own state) and Munich (which is the capital of Bavaria). Expect to see plenty of outdoor dining, beer gardens, outdoor events and no curfews (unless infections in a particular district flare up). For certain activities, like museum visits or cultural events, you may need to make a reservation. The biggest asset in making your stay in Germany comfortable is your proof of vaccination (which you’ll want to keep with you at all times), because it allows you to skip any tests that might be required. If you are not yet fully vaccinated, you’ll have to make use of Germany’s network of quick test centers. Certain activities, like dining indoors may require a negative test result for those without proof of vaccination.

Germany’s international tourist board runs a handy website in English that provides an up-to-date overview of local rules in individual states.

Medical masks or even FFP2 (similar to N95) masks are generally required on all public transport, national train lines, stores and indoor public spaces. Children under 6 generally don’t require masks.

After what seemed like endless months of lockdowns, Germans are ready to get out and enjoy social and cultural life again. This could be one of the great seasons for travel in Germany. Christopher F. Schuetze

Greece is recovering steadily from its latest coronavirus wave, which reached its peak in early April. As of May 18, the average daily case count had fallen to just over 2,000, down from a peak of more than 3,000 on April 5. Similarly, the share of coronavirus tests that are positive dropped to 4.3 percent on May 13 from 6.8 percent on April 1.

Nearly 28 percent of the Greek population had received at least one dose of vaccine as of May 18, while more than 16 percent were fully vaccinated. Those who work in the country’s tourism industry have been prioritized in the vaccine rollout, as have a number of the islands. The country’s health minister announced last week that residents of tourist-heavy islands such as Mykonos, Santorini and Corfu are next in line to receive their doses.

On arrival in Athens, travelers will need to present a certificate of vaccination, a negative coronavirus test no more than 72 hours old, or proof of recovery from Covid-19 within the past nine months. Passengers may also be subject to random rapid testing at the airport; anyone who tests positive will be put up at a local hotel for at least 10 days, along with their traveling companions, at the expense of the Greek government. Details on the rules of entry can be found here. Anyone planning to fly within the country will be subject to the same requirements as those arriving from abroad.

Greece, like Croatia and five other members of the European Union, began offering vaccination certificates to its citizens on June 1. The certificate program is not yet available to travelers from the United States.

Greece’s medical facilities, which have struggled from years of underfunding, were severely strained during the recent spring Covid-19 wave, but the pressures have eased over the past few weeks. Seventy-eight percent of Greece’s intensive care beds were occupied as of May 12, down from 88 percent in late April, according to the Greek government’s Covid Observatory. Any visitor who tests positive while in Greece should self isolate and contact a local doctor’s office if needed; in a medical emergency, dial 166.

Life in Greece is beginning to feel normal again as the government peels away the various restrictions of the country’s months-long lockdown. Outdoor archaeological sites reopened earlier this spring, while restaurants and cafes once again began offering outdoor service (with a maximum of six people per table) on May 3. Greece’s museums have been open to all — with masks required and social distancing measures in place — since May 14. Open-air cinemas kicked off their summer season on May 21, while spas, wellness centers and outdoor theaters are scheduled to reopen before the end of the month. A pared-down curfew remains in place, from 12:30 a.m. to 5 a.m. Ferry services to the islands are up and running, with limited capacity and mask requirements.

Greece jumped ahead of many of its European neighbors in opening up to vaccinated or Covid-negative tourists from the United States and a handful of other countries. The tourism industry accounts for roughly a quarter of total employment and more than a fifth of Greece’s gross domestic product, so restarting the industry is critical to helping the country recover from 2020, when the economy shrank by 8.2 percent.

“Unfortunately, after more than 10 years of economic hardship, tourism and food is our only industry,” Kostas Tzilialis, who works at a cafe and bookshop in central Athens, said recently. “We don’t produce cars or machines. So we have to open our industry right now. Let’s hope that people will be careful and the vaccines will protect us.” Paige McClanahan

Since January, Iceland has had only several hundred confirmed cases of the coronavirus. The daily count is currently in the single digits, after a relatively sharp rise in mid-April (peaking at 27 cases). As of May 20, roughly half of adult Icelanders had received at least one vaccine dose. Most fully vaccinated people are over 60; authorities expect to finish vaccinating the oldest age group, people with pre-existing medical conditions and frontline essential workers later in May. Unlike some of its Nordic neighbors, Iceland has not suspended the use of the AstraZeneca vaccine, putting its efforts ahead of the European curve.

Vaccinated visitors with an approved vaccination certificate or proof of previous infection must undergo a PCR test, which is provided free of charge at the airport, and quarantine until their test results come back negative; results are reported within 24 hours via a local tracing app.

Tourists who are not vaccinated need to quarantine for five days at a government-provided quarantine hotel (the stay is free of charge). Before arrival, they need to register and provide a negative PCR test that is no more than 72 hours old. More details on the rules of entry can be found here.

Domestic flights operate without any requirements beyond wearing a face mask, and public transport is generally on a normal schedule.

With one of the highest life expectancies in Europe, Iceland has an advanced health care system. On May 20, the country’s hospital had only four Covid patients.

In case of symptoms, visitors can call 1700 (on an Icelandic line) or +354 544 4113 (from any phone) to get tested. The local emergency number is 112.

Iceland has weathered the pandemic without ever resorting to the near-total social and economic shutdowns enforced in many other European countries. The success is partly a testament to its tiny population — about 360,000 people — but is also the result of decisive action by authorities, with rapid testing available early in the crisis. The country’s strict requirements still make it hard for everyone but vaccinated people to visit.

Gyms, pubs, restaurants, museums — just about everything — remain open, with limitations on late hours and crowds. Mask-wearing is required indoors and is strictly enforced.

Tourism is the island’s largest job sector and the economic pain has been felt particularly by the thousands of migrants who came to Iceland during the previous boom years. While the unemployment rate is expected to remain high this year, local business leaders claim traffic is improving by the week.

On a recent chilly morning in the northern town of Husavik, two American tourists, Kevin Campbell and Susan Montgomery, from Oregon, were on their sixth — “or seventh” — trip to Iceland. “Locals value the presence of tourists these days,” Mr. Campbell, 69, said. Earlier that morning they had tried to enter Husavik’s iconic wooden church, but the door was locked. “Then a lady from a nearby store came running with a key this big,” Mr. Campbell said — indicating with his hands something that was the size of a milk carton — “and showed us inside.”

On Husavik’s harbor — made famous when the town was featured in the Netflix film “Eurovision Song Contest: The Story of Fire Saga” — two rival whale-watching companies were competing for business. Nearby, restaurants offered multiple versions of fish, with one chalkboard highlighting the word “fresh.” Egill Bjarnason

Italy seems to be exiting a third wave of the pandemic that appears to have peaked in March. New cases and deaths are in constant decline. From May 10 to May 16, Italy had 1,369 deaths (daily average 195) and about 50,453 new cases (daily average 7,207), according to W.H.O. data. Hospitalizations have gone down by 49 percent in the past month, according to the Italian research foundation, Gimbe.

More than 17 percent of adults are fully vaccinated and 38 percent are at least partially vaccinated, according to the E.C.D.C.

Italy makes a distinction between tourists and those traveling for other reasons, such as businesspeople or students. Visitors from Europe, Israel and Britain can visit Italy without quarantining, regardless of their reason, but need to take a coronavirus test. Visitors from the United States and other non-European countries that are considered low risk (Japan, Canada, Australia and Singapore) can also come regardless of their motivation, but need both a coronavirus test and a 10-day-quarantine. Americans avoid the quarantine if they take special “Covid-tested flights” that require taking a test both before and after the flight, and submitting an E.U. digital passenger locator form. These Covid-tested flights are already available from New York and Atlanta to Milan and Rome, and will soon be offered to Venice and Naples. From countries considered high risk, only travel for essential reasons (such as business, study or medical care) is allowed, and no travel is allowed from India and Brazil.

Italy has one of Europe’s best health care systems. When northern Italy was severely hit in March and April 2020, hospitals were overwhelmed but that is no longer the case. The percentage of intensive care units taken over by Covid patients is declining and is now at 23 percent, according to statistics compiled by Gimbe, the research foundation.

Italy regulates restrictions with a system that places each of its 20 regions on a white-yellow-orange-red scale, which can at times result in significant differences across the country. Currently most of Italy is listed as “yellow,” with minor restrictions. Bars and restaurants are open for outdoor service (indoor service will be allowed from June 1). There is currently an 11 p.m. curfew, but on June 7 the curfew will be pushed back to midnight and, if the virus continues to abate, the curfew will be repealed by the end of June. Museums and theaters are open, but at a reduced capacity. Masks are mandatory for anyone above age 6, outdoors and indoors. Theme parks will open in June.

The mood is mixed with optimism, pandemic fatigue and excitement. On May 4 Prime Minister Mario Draghi gave a speech that energized the climate: “It’s time to book your vacations in Italy, we can’t wait to welcome you again,” he said, referring to international tourists.

Those working in the tourism industry say it worked. “Draghi’s announcement energized the bookings, we saw an increase just the day after,” said Giuseppe Artolli, 62, who manages COMO Castello del Nero, a castle-turned-hotel in Chianti.

Carlo Dalla Chiesa, 43, manages Milan’s youth hostel Ostello Bello, a popular destination for young international travelers but also a place where locals go for their aperitif. Even though the hostel lost 97 percent of revenue during the pandemic, he said the owners feel very optimistic and now are expanding their business in Rome, Florence, Genoa and Palermo. He is convinced that youth tourism is going to boom more than “adult” tourism.

“It feels like 1989, when the Berlin Wall fell and suddenly all the young folks from East Berlin started to travel,” he said. “Just think of the kids who are 20 right now, and have spent two years in lockdowns, now they’re going to want to travel a lot, and on a budget.” Anna Momigliano

In this country of 10 million people, fewer than 80 patients were being treated for Covid-19 in intensive care units as of mid-June. From a peak of more than 16,000 daily registered Covid-19 cases in late January, the rate was down to less than 500 new daily cases in the first week of June. However, in a sign of how quickly things can change, a recent surge of new cases around Lisbon resulted in authorities ordering a weekend lockdown on June 18.

As of June 15, more than two-fifths of Portugal’s population had received at least one dose of a Covid-19 vaccine — that includes 2.3 million residents who had already been fully vaccinated. The rollout was accelerated in June in Lisbon to counter another increase in the infection rate in the capital region. People from the age of 40 started getting shots on June 6, and those aged 30 on June 20.

Americans may now travel to Portugal with proof of a negative Covid-19 test, according to the U.S. Embassy and Consulate in Portugal. The tests, also mandatory for visitors from almost all other countries, must be done before landing in Portugal. But people who drive across the land border between Spain and Portugal, which was reopened in May, are not required to have undergone a test, independent of their nationality.

Quarantine obligations only remain in place for visitors from countries that have an infection rate of more than 500 cases per 100,000 inhabitants — which included India, Brazil and South Africa as of early June.

Portugal has a modern public health-care system, including good access to emergency services. Still, hospitals in Lisbon were overwhelmed in early 2021 by a sudden wave of Covid-19 that was much stronger than what Portugal had experienced the previous year. German military doctors flew to Portugal to help overcome staff shortages, while some patients were also flown from Lisbon to Austria to reduce the burden on local hospitals. The website of the Portuguese health ministry can help visitors locate the nearest Covid-19 testing center. For any medical emergency, dial 112, a toll-free number.

Portugal has gradually been lifting its lockdown restrictions since mid-March, when schools reopened. The next stage in the return to normalcy has recently started. Restaurants and cafes are now allowed to stay open until 1 a.m., instead of 10.30 p.m. Public transport is also allowed to operate again at full capacity.

But some restrictions will remain in place throughout the summer. At this stage, the Portuguese government has decided that bars and nightclubs will remain closed until the end of August; face masks in crowded outdoor spots will also continue. Portugal will also apply stricter and specific restrictions to municipalities that face a heightened infection risk, whenever their Covid-19 caseload increases.

In May, Portugal became one of the first European countries to reopen to British tourists, which form its largest set of foreign visitors. On May 29, the northern city of Porto welcomed thousands of English fans for the final of the European Champions League, without any quarantine requirement — even as Germany, France and some other European countries reintroduced quarantine for British visitors amid concerns that they could also spread the highly contagious Delta variant of the disease. But in early June, the British government made a U-turn and reintroduced a quarantine for people returning from Portugal, creating chaos for British tourists who had hoped to stay longer on vacation in the country. Raphael Minder

Spain’s virus numbers have been improving since the start of May, in line with an acceleration of its vaccination program. In the first two weeks of May, almost 79,000 residents tested positive — 28 percent lower than in the previous two weeks. The daily death toll also fell to about 75 by mid-May, down from a 2021 peak of almost 500 daily around mid-February.

As of mid-May, 30 percent of Spain’s population had received one dose of a Covid-19 vaccine. Of Spain’s 47 million residents, 6.7 million had been fully vaccinated by mid-May. Prime Minister Pedro Sánchez recently forecast that 70 percent of Spaniards would be vaccinated by Aug. 17.

Spain reopened to vaccinated American tourists — as well as visitors from other countries deemed to have a low risk of Covid-19 infection — on June 7. Travelers on a list of countries with a higher risk, including France and Germany, will have to show the negative results of an antigen test before flying to Spain. But visitors who drive across the land border between Portugal and Spain, which reopened in May, are not required to have undergone a test.

Spain prides itself on having one of Europe’s most extensive and modern public health-care systems, and access to emergency services is very efficient. But the system was seriously strained in the spring of 2020, particularly in Madrid, where hospitals overflowed with Covid-19 patients. In recent months, the situation has improved significantly, albeit with some important differences between the regions. In mid-May, Covid-19 patients continued to fill almost 40 percent of the beds in Madrid’s intensive care units — double the national average.

For any medical emergency, visitors can dial 112, a toll-free number that works 24/7 across the country and can connect callers to the nearest hospital or health facility. Specific information about health services in the Madrid capital region is also readily available.

Travel across Spain has resumed since the government lifted a national state of emergency on May 9. While wearing a face mask in public spaces continues to be a nationwide obligation, whatever other restrictions remain in place are in the hands of regional administrations. These restrictions have been tweaked almost on a weekly basis, which means that Spain has turned into a mosaic of regulations that visitors should review carefully. On June 8, Valencia became the last region of Spain to remove its nighttime curfew. Some regions, however, continue to maintain other specific restrictions, and have, for instance, adopted different closing hours for restaurants and bars.

For many months, Madrid has been one of Europe’s most bustling cities, with bars and shops kept open, as well as art museums, cinemas, theaters and an opera house that was one of the few in the world to stage a full season, including a new production in May of Benjamin Britten’s “Peter Grimes.” Already, the restaurant scene and cultural life of Madrid is attracting tourists from Paris and many other places that had imposed far stricter lockdown restrictions. In fact, “Freedom” was the campaign slogan that is believed to have helped Madrid region’s leader, Isabel Díaz Ayuso, win a landslide re-election victory in early May.

Slowly but surely, other parts of Spain have also removed their lockdown restrictions, including those that rely heavily on summer tourism to keep their local economies afloat. It looks as if the summer will feel almost like a return to normality, although there is little doubt that face masks will remain obligatory, while some other issues remain unresolved. For instance, Ibiza’s world-famous night clubs are still awaiting guidance from the local authorities about when and how they can reopen. Raphael Minder


Infections have dropped steadily since mid-April, with average daily confirmed cases falling from more than 2,500 on April 12 to roughly 610 on June 6. On a per capita basis, that puts Switzerland slightly ahead of France, its neighbor to the west, in tamping down infections, and a bit behind some other neighbors — Austria, Germany and Italy. Vaccinations are also picking up pace, with just over 37 percent of the population having received at least one dose as of June 2.

As of June 26, travelers arriving from the United States and other countries that are no longer deemed “high risk” will be allowed to enter Switzerland provided that they can show proof of full vaccination, proof of recovery from a Covid-19 infection, or a recent negative virus test. More information on the new entry requirements is available from the Swiss government.

Switzerland’s superb health-care system is currently under little strain because of the pandemic: Nearly 68 percent of the country’s I.C.U. beds were in use as of June 7, and only 13.6 percent of those beds were occupied by Covid-19 patients. The Swiss government has a list of testing centers that travelers can consult. Anyone who tests positive while in the country should follow the government’s instructions for isolation. In a medical emergency, dial 144.

Switzerland’s latest round of lockdown easing took effect on May 31, when indoor dining was once again permitted with a limit of four people per table. (Outdoor dining has been allowed since April.) Thermal baths, indoor swimming pools and spas were also given a May 31 reopening date, while limits on attendance at public spectator events were raised to 100 people indoors and 300 people outdoors. Large-scale events will probably be allowed once again as of July 1, though still with some upper limits on attendance. That leaves open the possibility that the Swiss summer festival season could go ahead, though on a smaller scale than normal, in some cases. The two-week Montreux Jazz Festival is scheduled to kick off on July 2 (the lineup has already been announced), while the Locarno Film Festival will run from Aug. 4 to 14, and the Zurich Food Festival is scheduled for Sept. 16 to 26. For the latest information on what’s open in Switzerland, the MySwitzerland website has all of the details.

The Swiss tourism industry is hoping that the country’s image as a stable and hygienic destination will help it to win back visitors. “Before the pandemic, you would have said, ‘Well, this is absolutely not sexy and not a huge asset in tourism promotion — that you are clean, that you are safe, that you are well organized,’” said Mr. Aschwanden, the Switzerland Tourism spokesman. “But now we realize that this is one of the best images that you can have.” Paige McClanahan

Infections and deaths in Turkey from the coronavirus have been declining steadily following a strict three-week national lockdown, which is expected to be lifted gradually through May.

Turkey so far has fully vaccinated about 15 percent of its population of 83 million people; about 20 percent have received their first dose, according to Our World in Data, an online compendium of data from global sources.

While the country is currently facing a vaccine shortage, forcing it to delay the administration of second doses, the health minister, Fahrettin Koca, said Turkey had secured 120 million doses of Pfizer-BioNTech and 50 million doses of Sputnik vaccines and will accelerate its vaccine campaign in June.

Turkey has remained open to tourists, including Americans, throughout the pandemic. Most international arrivals are required to show proof of vaccination or a negative PCR test taken within 72 hours of arrival.

Passengers arriving from Brazil, South Africa, India, Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka are required to quarantine in government-assigned accommodations and will be released if they test negative for the virus after day 10.

Turkey offers health insurance packages starting at as little as $15 that cover foreign visitors for Covid-19 treatment and hospitalization for up to 30 days. The country treats coronavirus patients in both public and private hospitals and opened 17 new hospitals last year to provide more intensive-care capacity for Covid treatment.

Turkey’s economy is heavily dependent on tourism, and its response to the pandemic has been defined, in large part, by not cutting off its flow. The country has had a two-tiered system in place throughout the pandemic that exempts visitors from the strictest lockdown measures, including a curfew at night and on weekends that requires residents to stay at home.

Tourists are free to visit museums, beaches and other sites across the country. Hotels and resorts are open with capacity restrictions, and Turkey is prioritizing vaccinations for tourism workers.

On June 1, restaurants and cafes reopened for indoor and outdoor dining between 7 a.m. and 9 p.m., and takeout is available until midnight. Retail stores and shopping malls are open during the week and on Saturdays, but theaters, gyms and swimming pools remain closed.

All the restrictions are expected to be lifted at the start of the all-important tourist season in July. Ceylan Yeginsu

More than half of Britain’s population has received one dose of a coronavirus vaccine and the government aims to offer the rest of the adult population its first shot by the end of July. So far, 46 percent of the population has been fully vaccinated.

England has devised a “traffic light” system for foreign visitors, which determines quarantine and testing requirements depending on case numbers and the prevalence of coronavirus variants in their home countries.

Only British and Irish nationals and those with residence rights in the United Kingdom are permitted to enter England from destinations on the red list, which includes India and Brazil. Anyone who has visited or passed through a red country within 10 days of arrival is required to get a coronavirus test 72 hours before their departure and must quarantine for 10 days in a government-designated hotel, which costs about $2,400 per person traveling alone.

The United States and most European countries are currently on England’s amber list, which requires travelers to show proof of a negative virus test taken 72 hours before departure and then self-isolate at home or at a suitable hotel for 10 days after arriving in the United Kingdom.

On day two and day eight of quarantining, travelers must take PCR tests, which cost about $300 and must be purchased in advance from British authorities. Those who want to be released from self-isolation early can take an additional test through a private provider on Day 5, at a cost of about $200, but they still must take the final test on Day 8. (The cost of tests may vary when entering Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland.)

Visitors from countries or territories on England’s green list — there are currently 11, including Australia and New Zealand — are exempt from quarantine but are required to take a PCR test before departure and two days after arrival.

The National Health Service contact tracing department carries out regular spot checks by phone and in person to ensure that passengers are complying with quarantine rules. Those found breaking them could face fines of up to $14,000 and jail time.

The traffic light system will be reviewed every three weeks with the possibility for countries to move up or down depending on how well they are containing the pandemic.

Foreign citizens visiting Britain have free access to National Health Service coronavirus testing and treatment, including hospitalization if it is required.

Pubs, restaurants, theaters, museums, stores and hotels have reopened over the last three weeks, although capacity restrictions and social distancing measures still apply. While outside, most people do not wear masks, but indoors they are still expected to do so unless eating or drinking in a restaurant.

Across major cities such as London, Manchester, Brighton and Edinburgh, restaurants and bars are buzzing with people reuniting with friends and family and enjoying their newfound freedom after months of lockdown. Demand in coastal destinations like Cornwall and Dorset has soared in recent weeks as the weather warms and Britons book domestic beach vacations.

The government planned to lift remaining coronavirus restrictions by June 21, including those on nightclubs and large events such as festivals, but a spike in cases of a highly transmissible new variant pushed the date back to July 19. Ceylan Yeginsu


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